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AB-744 Planning and zoning: density bonuses.(2015-2016)

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AB744:v92#DOCUMENT

Assembly Bill No. 744
CHAPTER 699

An act to amend Section 65915 of the Government Code, relating to housing.

[ Approved by Governor  October 09, 2015. Filed with Secretary of State  October 09, 2015. ]

LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 744, Chau. Planning and zoning: density bonuses.
The Planning and Zoning Law requires, when a developer of housing proposes a housing development within the jurisdiction of the local government, that the city, county, or city and county provide the developer with a density bonus and other incentives or concessions for the production of lower income housing units or the donation of land within the development if the developer, among other things, agrees to construct a specified percentage of units for very low, low-, or moderate-income households or qualifying residents. Existing law requires continued affordability for 55 years or longer, as specified, of all very low and low-income units that qualified an applicant for a density bonus. Existing law prohibits a city, county, or city and county from requiring a vehicular parking ratio for a housing development that meets these criteria in excess of specified ratios. This prohibition applies only at the request of the developer and specifies that the developer may request additional parking incentives or concessions.
This bill would, notwithstanding the above-described provisions, additionally prohibit, at the request of the developer, a city, county, or city and county from imposing a vehicular parking ratio, inclusive of handicapped and guest parking, in excess of 0.5 spaces per bedroom on a development that includes the maximum percentage of low- or very low income units, as specified, and is located within1/2 mile of a major transit stop, as defined, and there is unobstructed access to the transit stop from the development. The bill would also prohibit, at the request of the developer, a city, county, or city and county from imposing a vehicular parking ratio, inclusive of handicapped and guest parking, in excess of specified amounts per unit on a development that consists solely of units with an affordable housing cost to lower income households, as specified, if the development is within1/2 mile of a major transit stop and there is unobstructed access to the transit stop from the development, is a for-rent housing development for individuals that are 62 years of age or older that complies with specified existing laws regarding senior housing, or is a special needs housing development, as those terms are defined. The bill would require a subject development that is a for-rent housing development for individuals that are 62 years of age or older or a special needs housing development to have either paratransit service or unobstructed access, within 1/2 mile, to fixed bus route service that operates at least 8 times per day. The bill would authorize a city, county, or city and county to impose a higher vehicular parking ratio based on substantial evidence found in an areawide or jurisdictionwide parking study, as specified. The bill would make findings and declarations, including that the subject of the bill is a matter of statewide concern and not a municipal affair.
By imposing additional duties on local governments in awarding density bonuses, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
(a) Having a healthy housing market that provides an adequate supply of homes that are affordable to Californians at all income levels is critical to the economic prosperity and quality of life in the state.
(b) There exists a severe shortage of affordable housing, especially for persons and families of extremely low, very low, and low income, and there is an immediate need to encourage the development of new housing, not only through the provision of financial assistance but also through reforms to regulation.
(c) Affordable housing is expensive to build in California.
(d) The cost of building affordable housing in California is impacted by local opposition, changes imposed by local design and review, and requirements for on-site parking.
(e) The average construction cost per space, excluding land cost, in a parking structure in the United States is about $24,000 for aboveground parking and $34,000 for underground parking. In an affordable housing project with a fixed budget, every $24,000 spent on a required parking space is $24,000 less to spend on housing.
(f) The biggest single determinant of vehicle miles traveled and therefore greenhouse gas emissions is ownership of a private vehicle.
(g) A review of developments funded through the Department of Housing and Community Development’s Transit-Oriented Development Implementation Program (TOD program) shows that lower income households drive 25 to 30 percent fewer miles when living within one-half mile of transit than those living in non-TOD program areas. When living within one-quarter mile of frequent transit, they drove nearly 50 percent less.
(h) When cities require off-street parking with all new residential construction, they shift what should be the cost of driving, the cost of parking a car, into the cost of housing, which artificially increases the cost of housing.
(i) Increases in public transportation and shared mobility options and the development of more walkable and bikeable neighborhoods reduce the demand for parking.
(j) Consistent with Chapter 488 of the Statues of 2006 (AB 32) and Chapter 728 of the Statutes of 2008 (SB 375), it is state policy to promote transit-oriented infill development to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
(k) The high cost of the land and improvements required to provide parking significantly increases the cost of transit-oriented development, making lower cost and affordable housing development financially infeasible and hindering the goals of SB 375.
(l) Eliminating minimum parking requirements will allow the limited funding available for affordable housing to support more housing for more Californians. A given housing subsidy fund can benefit about 6.5 times more households with no parking spaces than households with 2 spaces per unit.
(m) Minimum parking requirements provide large subsidies for parking, which in turn encourage more people to drive cars.
(n) Minimum parking requirements create a barrier to effective use of the density bonus law contained in Section 65915 of the Government Code. The parking required for the extra units adds construction and land costs that may be prohibitive and requires vacant land that may be unavailable, especially in locations near transit.
(o) Increasing the supply of affordable housing near transit helps achieve deeper affordability through reduced transportation costs, in addition to reduced housing costs.
(p) Governmental parking requirements for infill and transit-oriented development reduce the viability of transit by limiting the number of households or workers near transit, increasing walking distances, and degrading the pedestrian environment.
(q) Reducing or eliminating minimum parking requirements for infill and transit-oriented development and allowing builders and the market to decide how much parking is needed can achieve all of the following:
(1) Ensure sufficient amounts of parking at almost all times.
(2) Reduce the cost of development and increase the number of transit-accessible and affordable housing units.
(3) Allow for more effective use of the density bonus law.
(4) Increase density in areas with the most housing demand, and improve the viability of developing alternate modes of transportation, such as public transit, ridesharing, biking, and walking.
(5) Reduce greenhouse gas emissions and vehicle miles traveled by removing an incentive to drive.
(r) It is the intent of the Legislature to reduce the cost of development by eliminating excessive minimum parking requirements for transit-oriented developments that includes affordable housing, senior housing, and special needs housing.
(s) The Legislature further declares that the need to address infill development and excessive parking requirements is a matter of statewide concern and is not a municipal affair as that term is used in Section 5 of Article XI of the California Constitution. Therefore, this act shall apply to all cities, including charter cities.

SEC. 2.

 Section 65915 of the Government Code is amended to read:

65915.
 (a) When an applicant seeks a density bonus for a housing development within, or for the donation of land for housing within, the jurisdiction of a city, county, or city and county, that local government shall provide the applicant with incentives or concessions for the production of housing units and child care facilities as prescribed in this section. All cities, counties, or cities and counties shall adopt an ordinance that specifies how compliance with this section will be implemented. Failure to adopt an ordinance shall not relieve a city, county, or city and county from complying with this section.
(b) (1) A city, county, or city and county shall grant one density bonus, the amount of which shall be as specified in subdivision (f), and incentives or concessions, as described in subdivision (d), when an applicant for a housing development seeks and agrees to construct a housing development, excluding any units permitted by the density bonus awarded pursuant to this section, that will contain at least any one of the following:
(A) Ten percent of the total units of a housing development for lower income households, as defined in Section 50079.5 of the Health and Safety Code.
(B) Five percent of the total units of a housing development for very low income households, as defined in Section 50105 of the Health and Safety Code.
(C) A senior citizen housing development, as defined in Sections 51.3 and 51.12 of the Civil Code, or a mobilehome park that limits residency based on age requirements for housing for older persons pursuant to Section 798.76 or 799.5 of the Civil Code.
(D) Ten percent of the total dwelling units in a common interest development, as defined in Section 4100 of the Civil Code, for persons and families of moderate income, as defined in Section 50093 of the Health and Safety Code, provided that all units in the development are offered to the public for purchase.
(2) For purposes of calculating the amount of the density bonus pursuant to subdivision (f), an applicant who requests a density bonus pursuant to this subdivision shall elect whether the bonus shall be awarded on the basis of subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) of paragraph (1).
(3) For the purposes of this section, “total units” or “total dwelling units” does not include units added by a density bonus awarded pursuant to this section or any local law granting a greater density bonus.
(c) (1) An applicant shall agree to, and the city, county, or city and county shall ensure, the continued affordability of all very low and low-income rental units that qualified the applicant for the award of the density bonus for 55 years or a longer period of time if required by the construction or mortgage financing assistance program, mortgage insurance program, or rental subsidy program. Rents for the lower income density bonus units shall be set at an affordable rent as defined in Section 50053 of the Health and Safety Code.
(2) An applicant shall agree to, and the city, county, or city and county shall ensure that, the initial occupant of all for-sale units that qualified the applicant for the award of the density bonus are persons and families of very low, low, or moderate income, as required, and that the units are offered at an affordable housing cost, as that cost is defined in Section 50052.5 of the Health and Safety Code. The local government shall enforce an equity sharing agreement, unless it is in conflict with the requirements of another public funding source or law. The following apply to the equity sharing agreement:
(A) Upon resale, the seller of the unit shall retain the value of any improvements, the downpayment, and the seller’s proportionate share of appreciation. The local government shall recapture any initial subsidy, as defined in subparagraph (B), and its proportionate share of appreciation, as defined in subparagraph (C), which amount shall be used within five years for any of the purposes described in subdivision (e) of Section 33334.2 of the Health and Safety Code that promote home ownership.
(B) For purposes of this subdivision, the local government’s initial subsidy shall be equal to the fair market value of the home at the time of initial sale minus the initial sale price to the moderate-income household, plus the amount of any downpayment assistance or mortgage assistance. If upon resale the market value is lower than the initial market value, then the value at the time of the resale shall be used as the initial market value.
(C) For purposes of this subdivision, the local government’s proportionate share of appreciation shall be equal to the ratio of the local government’s initial subsidy to the fair market value of the home at the time of initial sale.
(3) (A) An applicant shall be ineligible for a density bonus or any other incentives or concessions under this section if the housing development is proposed on any property that includes a parcel or parcels on which rental dwelling units are or, if the dwelling units have been vacated or demolished in the five-year period preceding the application, have been subject to a recorded covenant, ordinance, or law that restricts rents to levels affordable to persons and families of lower or very low income; subject to any other form of rent or price control through a public entity’s valid exercise of its police power; or occupied by lower or very low income households, unless the proposed housing development replaces those units, and either of the following applies:
(i) The proposed housing development, inclusive of the units replaced pursuant to this paragraph, contains affordable units at the percentages set forth in subdivision (b).
(ii) Each unit in the development, exclusive of a manager’s unit or units, is affordable to, and occupied by, either a lower or very low income household.
(B) For the purposes of this paragraph, “replace” shall mean either of the following:
(i) If any dwelling units described in subparagraph (A) are occupied on the date of application, the proposed housing development shall provide at least the same number of units of equivalent size or type, or both, to be made available at affordable rent or affordable housing cost to, and occupied by, persons and families in the same or lower income category as those households in occupancy. For unoccupied dwelling units described in subparagraph (A) in a development with occupied units, the proposed housing development shall provide units of equivalent size or type, or both, to be made available at affordable rent or affordable housing cost to, and occupied by, persons and families in the same or lower income category in the same proportion of affordability as the occupied units. All replacement calculations resulting in fractional units shall be rounded up to the next whole number. If the replacement units will be rental dwelling units, these units shall be subject to a recorded affordability restriction for at least 55 years. If the proposed development is for-sale units, the units replaced shall be subject to paragraph (2).
(ii) If all dwelling units described in subparagraph (A) have been vacated or demolished within the five-year period preceding the application, the proposed housing development shall provide at least the same number of units of equivalent size or type, or both, as existed at the highpoint of those units in the five-year period preceding the application to be made available at affordable rent or affordable housing cost to, and occupied by, persons and families in the same or lower income category as those persons and families in occupancy at that time, if known. If the incomes of the persons and families in occupancy at the highpoint is not known, then one-half of the required units shall be made available at affordable rent or affordable housing cost to, and occupied by, very low income persons and families and one-half of the required units shall be made available for rent at affordable housing costs to, and occupied by, low-income persons and families. All replacement calculations resulting in fractional units shall be rounded up to the next whole number. If the replacement units will be rental dwelling units, these units shall be subject to a recorded affordability restriction for at least 55 years. If the proposed development is for-sale units, the units replaced shall be subject to paragraph (2).
(C) Paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) does not apply to an applicant seeking a density bonus for a proposed housing development if his or her application was submitted to, or processed by, a city, county, or city and county before January 1, 2015.
(d) (1) An applicant for a density bonus pursuant to subdivision (b) may submit to a city, county, or city and county a proposal for the specific incentives or concessions that the applicant requests pursuant to this section, and may request a meeting with the city, county, or city and county. The city, county, or city and county shall grant the concession or incentive requested by the applicant unless the city, county, or city and county makes a written finding, based upon substantial evidence, of any of the following:
(A) The concession or incentive is not required in order to provide for affordable housing costs, as defined in Section 50052.5 of the Health and Safety Code, or for rents for the targeted units to be set as specified in subdivision (c).
(B) The concession or incentive would have a specific adverse impact, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 65589.5, upon public health and safety or the physical environment or on any real property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigate or avoid the specific adverse impact without rendering the development unaffordable to low- and moderate-income households.
(C) The concession or incentive would be contrary to state or federal law.
(2) The applicant shall receive the following number of incentives or concessions:
(A) One incentive or concession for projects that include at least 10 percent of the total units for lower income households, at least 5 percent for very low income households, or at least 10 percent for persons and families of moderate income in a common interest development.
(B) Two incentives or concessions for projects that include at least 20 percent of the total units for lower income households, at least 10 percent for very low income households, or at least 20 percent for persons and families of moderate income in a common interest development.
(C) Three incentives or concessions for projects that include at least 30 percent of the total units for lower income households, at least 15 percent for very low income households, or at least 30 percent for persons and families of moderate income in a common interest development.
(3) The applicant may initiate judicial proceedings if the city, county, or city and county refuses to grant a requested density bonus, incentive, or concession. If a court finds that the refusal to grant a requested density bonus, incentive, or concession is in violation of this section, the court shall award the plaintiff reasonable attorney’s fees and costs of suit. Nothing in this subdivision shall be interpreted to require a local government to grant an incentive or concession that has a specific, adverse impact, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 65589.5, upon health, safety, or the physical environment, and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigate or avoid the specific adverse impact. Nothing in this subdivision shall be interpreted to require a local government to grant an incentive or concession that would have an adverse impact on any real property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. The city, county, or city and county shall establish procedures for carrying out this section, that shall include legislative body approval of the means of compliance with this section.
(e) (1) In no case may a city, county, or city and county apply any development standard that will have the effect of physically precluding the construction of a development meeting the criteria of subdivision (b) at the densities or with the concessions or incentives permitted by this section. An applicant may submit to a city, county, or city and county a proposal for the waiver or reduction of development standards that will have the effect of physically precluding the construction of a development meeting the criteria of subdivision (b) at the densities or with the concessions or incentives permitted under this section, and may request a meeting with the city, county, or city and county. If a court finds that the refusal to grant a waiver or reduction of development standards is in violation of this section, the court shall award the plaintiff reasonable attorney’s fees and costs of suit. Nothing in this subdivision shall be interpreted to require a local government to waive or reduce development standards if the waiver or reduction would have a specific, adverse impact, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 65589.5, upon health, safety, or the physical environment, and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigate or avoid the specific adverse impact. Nothing in this subdivision shall be interpreted to require a local government to waive or reduce development standards that would have an adverse impact on any real property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources, or to grant any waiver or reduction that would be contrary to state or federal law.
(2) A proposal for the waiver or reduction of development standards pursuant to this subdivision shall neither reduce nor increase the number of incentives or concessions to which the applicant is entitled pursuant to subdivision (d).
(f) For the purposes of this chapter, “density bonus” means a density increase over the otherwise maximum allowable residential density as of the date of application by the applicant to the city, county, or city and county. The applicant may elect to accept a lesser percentage of density bonus. The amount of density bonus to which the applicant is entitled shall vary according to the amount by which the percentage of affordable housing units exceeds the percentage established in subdivision (b).
(1) For housing developments meeting the criteria of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), the density bonus shall be calculated as follows:
Percentage Low-Income UnitsPercentage Density Bonus
1020 
1121.5
1223 
1324.5
1426 
1527.5
1730.5
1832 
1933.5
2035 
(2) For housing developments meeting the criteria of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), the density bonus shall be calculated as follows:
Percentage Very Low Income UnitsPercentage Density Bonus
520 
622.5
725 
827.5
930 
1032.5
1135 
(3) For housing developments meeting the criteria of subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), the density bonus shall be 20 percent of the number of senior housing units.
(4) For housing developments meeting the criteria of subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), the density bonus shall be calculated as follows:
Percentage Moderate-Income UnitsPercentage Density Bonus
105
116
127
138
149
1510
1611
1712
1813
1914
2015
2116
2217
2318
2419
2520
2621
2722
2823
2924
3025
3126
3227
3328
3429
3530
3631
3732
3833
3934
4035
(5) All density calculations resulting in fractional units shall be rounded up to the next whole number. The granting of a density bonus shall not be interpreted, in and of itself, to require a general plan amendment, local coastal plan amendment, zoning change, or other discretionary approval.
(g) (1) When an applicant for a tentative subdivision map, parcel map, or other residential development approval donates land to a city, county, or city and county in accordance with this subdivision, the applicant shall be entitled to a 15-percent increase above the otherwise maximum allowable residential density for the entire development, as follows:
Percentage Very Low IncomePercentage Density Bonus
1015
1116
1217
1318
1419
1520
1621
1722
1823
1924
2025
2126
2227
2328
2429
2530
2631
2732
2833
2934
3035
(2) This increase shall be in addition to any increase in density mandated by subdivision (b), up to a maximum combined mandated density increase of 35 percent if an applicant seeks an increase pursuant to both this subdivision and subdivision (b). All density calculations resulting in fractional units shall be rounded up to the next whole number. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to enlarge or diminish the authority of a city, county, or city and county to require a developer to donate land as a condition of development. An applicant shall be eligible for the increased density bonus described in this subdivision if all of the following conditions are met:
(A) The applicant donates and transfers the land no later than the date of approval of the final subdivision map, parcel map, or residential development application.
(B) The developable acreage and zoning classification of the land being transferred are sufficient to permit construction of units affordable to very low income households in an amount not less than 10 percent of the number of residential units of the proposed development.
(C) The transferred land is at least one acre in size or of sufficient size to permit development of at least 40 units, has the appropriate general plan designation, is appropriately zoned with appropriate development standards for development at the density described in paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of Section 65583.2, and is or will be served by adequate public facilities and infrastructure.
(D) The transferred land shall have all of the permits and approvals, other than building permits, necessary for the development of the very low income housing units on the transferred land, not later than the date of approval of the final subdivision map, parcel map, or residential development application, except that the local government may subject the proposed development to subsequent design review to the extent authorized by subdivision (i) of Section 65583.2 if the design is not reviewed by the local government prior to the time of transfer.
(E) The transferred land and the affordable units shall be subject to a deed restriction ensuring continued affordability of the units consistent with paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (c), which shall be recorded on the property at the time of the transfer.
(F) The land is transferred to the local agency or to a housing developer approved by the local agency. The local agency may require the applicant to identify and transfer the land to the developer.
(G) The transferred land shall be within the boundary of the proposed development or, if the local agency agrees, within one-quarter mile of the boundary of the proposed development.
(H) A proposed source of funding for the very low income units shall be identified not later than the date of approval of the final subdivision map, parcel map, or residential development application.
(h) (1) When an applicant proposes to construct a housing development that conforms to the requirements of subdivision (b) and includes a child care facility that will be located on the premises of, as part of, or adjacent to, the project, the city, county, or city and county shall grant either of the following:
(A) An additional density bonus that is an amount of square feet of residential space that is equal to or greater than the amount of square feet in the child care facility.
(B) An additional concession or incentive that contributes significantly to the economic feasibility of the construction of the child care facility.
(2) The city, county, or city and county shall require, as a condition of approving the housing development, that the following occur:
(A) The child care facility shall remain in operation for a period of time that is as long as or longer than the period of time during which the density bonus units are required to remain affordable pursuant to subdivision (c).
(B) Of the children who attend the child care facility, the children of very low income households, lower income households, or families of moderate income shall equal a percentage that is equal to or greater than the percentage of dwelling units that are required for very low income households, lower income households, or families of moderate income pursuant to subdivision (b).
(3) Notwithstanding any requirement of this subdivision, a city, county, or city and county shall not be required to provide a density bonus or concession for a child care facility if it finds, based upon substantial evidence, that the community has adequate child care facilities.
(4) “Child care facility,” as used in this section, means a child day care facility other than a family day care home, including, but not limited to, infant centers, preschools, extended day care facilities, and schoolage child care centers.
(i) “Housing development,” as used in this section, means a development project for five or more residential units. For the purposes of this section, “housing development” also includes a subdivision or common interest development, as defined in Section 4100 of the Civil Code, approved by a city, county, or city and county and consists of residential units or unimproved residential lots and either a project to substantially rehabilitate and convert an existing commercial building to residential use or the substantial rehabilitation of an existing multifamily dwelling, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 65863.4, where the result of the rehabilitation would be a net increase in available residential units. For the purpose of calculating a density bonus, the residential units shall be on contiguous sites that are the subject of one development application, but do not have to be based upon individual subdivision maps or parcels. The density bonus shall be permitted in geographic areas of the housing development other than the areas where the units for the lower income households are located.
(j) (1) The granting of a concession or incentive shall not be interpreted, in and of itself, to require a general plan amendment, local coastal plan amendment, zoning change, or other discretionary approval. This provision is declaratory of existing law.
(2) Except as provided in subdivisions (d) and (e), the granting of a density bonus shall not be interpreted to require the waiver of a local ordinance or provisions of a local ordinance unrelated to development standards.
(k) For the purposes of this chapter, concession or incentive means any of the following:
(1) A reduction in site development standards or a modification of zoning code requirements or architectural design requirements that exceed the minimum building standards approved by the California Building Standards Commission as provided in Part 2.5 (commencing with Section 18901) of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, including, but not limited to, a reduction in setback and square footage requirements and in the ratio of vehicular parking spaces that would otherwise be required that results in identifiable, financially sufficient, and actual cost reductions.
(2) Approval of mixed-use zoning in conjunction with the housing project if commercial, office, industrial, or other land uses will reduce the cost of the housing development and if the commercial, office, industrial, or other land uses are compatible with the housing project and the existing or planned development in the area where the proposed housing project will be located.
(3) Other regulatory incentives or concessions proposed by the developer or the city, county, or city and county that result in identifiable, financially sufficient, and actual cost reductions.
(l) Subdivision (k) does not limit or require the provision of direct financial incentives for the housing development, including the provision of publicly owned land, by the city, county, or city and county, or the waiver of fees or dedication requirements.
(m) This section does not supersede or in any way alter or lessen the effect or application of the California Coastal Act of 1976 (Division 20 (commencing with Section 30000) of the Public Resources Code).
(n) If permitted by local ordinance, nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a city, county, or city and county from granting a density bonus greater than what is described in this section for a development that meets the requirements of this section or from granting a proportionately lower density bonus than what is required by this section for developments that do not meet the requirements of this section.
(o) For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:
(1) “Development standard” includes a site or construction condition, including, but not limited to, a height limitation, a setback requirement, a floor area ratio, an onsite open-space requirement, or a parking ratio that applies to a residential development pursuant to any ordinance, general plan element, specific plan, charter, or other local condition, law, policy, resolution, or regulation.
(2) “Maximum allowable residential density” means the density allowed under the zoning ordinance and land use element of the general plan, or if a range of density is permitted, means the maximum allowable density for the specific zoning range and land use element of the general plan applicable to the project. Where the density allowed under the zoning ordinance is inconsistent with the density allowed under the land use element of the general plan, the general plan density shall prevail.
(p) (1)  Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), upon the request of the developer, a city, county, or city and county shall not require a vehicular parking ratio, inclusive of handicapped and guest parking, of a development meeting the criteria of subdivisions (b) and (c), that exceeds the following ratios:
(A) Zero to one bedroom: one onsite parking space.
(B) Two to three bedrooms: two onsite parking spaces.
(C) Four and more bedrooms: two and one-half parking spaces.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if a development includes the maximum percentage of low- or very low income units provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (f) and is located within one-half mile of a major transit stop, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 21155 of the Public Resources Code, and there is unobstructed access to the major transit stop from the development, then, upon the request of the developer, a city, county, or city and county shall not impose a vehicular parking ratio, inclusive of handicapped and guest parking, that exceeds 0.5 spaces per bedroom. For purposes of this subdivision, a development shall have unobstructed access to a major transit stop if a resident is able to access the major transit stop without encountering natural or constructed impediments.
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if a development consists solely of rental units, exclusive of a manager’s unit or units, with an affordable housing cost to lower income families, as provided in Section 50052.5 of the Health and Safety Code, then, upon the request of the developer, a city, county, or city and county shall not impose a vehicular parking ratio, inclusive of handicapped and guest parking, that exceeds the following ratios:
(A) If the development is located within one-half mile of a major transit stop, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 21155 of the Public Resources Code, and there is unobstructed access to the major transit stop from the development, the ratio shall not exceed 0.5 spaces per unit.
(B) If the development is a for-rent housing development for individuals who are 62 years of age or older that complies with Sections 51.2 and 51.3 of the Civil Code, the ratio shall not exceed 0.5 spaces per unit. The development shall have either paratransit service or unobstructed access, within one-half mile, to fixed bus route service that operates at least eight times per day.
(C) If the development is a special needs housing development, as defined in Section 51312 of the Health and Safety Code, the ratio shall not exceed 0.3 spaces per unit. The development shall have either paratransit service or unobstructed access, within one-half mile, to fixed bus route service that operates at least eight times per day.
(4) If the total number of parking spaces required for a development is other than a whole number, the number shall be rounded up to the next whole number. For purposes of this subdivision, a development may provide on-site parking through tandem parking or uncovered parking, but not through on-street parking.
(5) This subdivision shall apply to a development that meets the requirements of subdivisions (b) and (c), but only at the request of the applicant. An applicant may request parking incentives or concessions beyond those provided in this subdivision pursuant to subdivision (d).
(6) This subdivision does not preclude a city, county, or city and county from reducing or eliminating a parking requirement for development projects of any type in any location.
(7) Notwithstanding paragraphs (2) and (3), if a city, county, city and county, or an independent consultant has conducted an areawide or jurisdictionwide parking study in the last seven years, then the city, county, or city and county may impose a higher vehicular parking ratio not to exceed the ratio described in paragraph (1), based upon substantial evidence found in the parking study, that includes, but is not limited to, an analysis of parking availability, differing levels of transit access, walkability access to transit services, the potential for shared parking, the effect of parking requirements on the cost of market-rate and subsidized developments, and the lower rates of car ownership for low- and very low income individuals, including seniors and special needs individuals. The city, county, or city and county shall pay the costs of any new study. The city, county, or city and county shall make findings, based on a parking study completed in conformity with this paragraph, supporting the need for the higher parking ratio.

SEC. 3.

 No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution because a local agency or school district has the authority to levy service charges, fees, or assessments sufficient to pay for the program or level of service mandated by this act, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code.