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AB-733 Pupil records: privacy rights.(2011-2012)

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Assembly Bill No. 733
CHAPTER 388

An act to amend Sections 49076 and 49076.5 of the Education Code, relating to pupil records.

[ Approved by Governor  September 19, 2012. Filed with Secretary of State  September 19, 2012. ]

LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 733, Ma. Pupil records: privacy rights.
Existing law prohibits a school district from permitting access to pupil records to any person without written parental consent or judicial order, except as provided.
This bill would make various changes to these pupil record provisions to conform them to federal law, except as specified.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: NO   Local Program: NO  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 49076 of the Education Code is amended to read:

49076.
 (a) A school district shall not permit access to pupil records to a person without written parental consent or under judicial order except as set forth in this section and as permitted by Part 99 (commencing with Section 99.1) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(1) Access to those particular records relevant to the legitimate educational interests of the requester shall be permitted to the following:
(A) School officials and employees of the school district, members of a school attendance review board appointed pursuant to Section 48321 who are authorized representatives of the school district, and any volunteer aide, 18 years of age or older, who has been investigated, selected, and trained by a school attendance review board for the purpose of providing followup services to pupils referred to the school attendance review board, provided that the person has a legitimate educational interest to inspect a record.
(B) Officials and employees of other public schools or school systems, including local, county, or state correctional facilities where educational programs leading to high school graduation are provided or where the pupil intends to or is directed to enroll, subject to the rights of parents as provided in Section 49068.
(C) Authorized representatives of the Comptroller General of the United States, the Secretary of Education, and state and local educational authorities, or the United States Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, if the information is necessary to audit or evaluate a state or federally supported education program, or in connection with the enforcement of, or compliance with, the federal legal requirements that relate to such a program. Records released pursuant to this section shall comply with the requirements of Section 99.35 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(D) Other state and local officials to the extent that information is specifically required to be reported pursuant to state law adopted before November 19, 1974.
(E) Parents of a pupil 18 years of age or older who is a dependent as defined in Section 152 of Title 26 of the United States Code.
(F) A pupil 16 years of age or older or having completed the 10th grade who requests access.
(G) A district attorney who is participating in or conducting a truancy mediation program pursuant to Section 48263.5, or Section 601.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or participating in the presentation of evidence in a truancy petition pursuant to Section 681 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(H) A district attorney’s office for consideration against a parent or guardian for failure to comply with the Compulsory Education Law (Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 48200)) or with Compulsory Continuation Education (Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 48400)).
(I) (i) A probation officer, district attorney, or counsel of record for a minor for purposes of conducting a criminal investigation or an investigation in regards to declaring a person a ward of the court or involving a violation of a condition of probation.
(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, a probation officer, district attorney, and counsel of record for a minor shall be deemed to be local officials for purposes of Section 99.31(a)(5)(i) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(iii) Pupil records obtained pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the evidentiary rules described in Section 701 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(J) A judge or probation officer for the purpose of conducting a truancy mediation program for a pupil, or for purposes of presenting evidence in a truancy petition pursuant to Section 681 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. The judge or probation officer shall certify in writing to the school district that the information will be used only for truancy purposes. A school district releasing pupil information to a judge or probation officer pursuant to this subparagraph shall inform, or provide written notification to, the parent or guardian of the pupil within 24 hours of the release of the information.
(K) A county placing agency when acting as an authorized representative of a state or local educational agency pursuant to subparagraph (C). School districts, county offices of education, and county placing agencies may develop cooperative agreements to facilitate confidential access to and exchange of the pupil information by email, facsimile, electronic format, or other secure means, provided the agreement complies with the requirements set forth in Section 99.35 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(2) School districts may release information from pupil records to the following:
(A) Appropriate persons in connection with an emergency if the knowledge of the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of a pupil or other persons. Schools or school districts releasing information pursuant to this section shall comply with the requirements set forth in Section 99.32(a)(5) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(B) Agencies or organizations in connection with the application of a pupil for, or receipt of, financial aid. However, information permitting the personal identification of a pupil or his or her parents may be disclosed only as may be necessary for purposes as to determine the eligibility of the pupil for financial aid, to determine the amount of the financial aid, to determine the conditions which will be imposed regarding the financial aid, or to enforce the terms or conditions of the financial aid.
(C) Pursuant to Section 99.37 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, a county elections official, for the purpose of identifying pupils eligible to register to vote, or for conducting programs to offer pupils an opportunity to register to vote. The information shall not be used for any other purpose or given or transferred to any other person or agency.
(D) Accrediting associations in order to carry out their accrediting functions.
(E) Organizations conducting studies for, or on behalf of, educational agencies or institutions for the purpose of developing, validating, or administering predictive tests, administering student aid programs, and improving instruction, if the studies are conducted in a manner that will not permit the personal identification of pupils or their parents by persons other than representatives of the organizations, the information will be destroyed when no longer needed for the purpose for which it is obtained, and the organization enters into a written agreement with the educational agency or institution that complies with Section 99.31(a)(6) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(F) Officials and employees of private schools or school systems where the pupil is enrolled or intends to enroll, subject to the rights of parents as provided in Section 49068 and in compliance with the requirements in Section 99.34 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This information shall be in addition to the pupil’s permanent record transferred pursuant to Section 49068.
(G) (i) A contractor or consultant with a legitimate educational interest who has a formal written agreement or contract with the school district regarding the provision of outsourced institutional services or functions by the contractor or consultant.
(ii) Notwithstanding Section 99.31(a)(1)(i)(B) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, a disclosure pursuant to this paragraph shall not be permitted to a volunteer or other party.
(3) A person, persons, agency, or organization permitted access to pupil records pursuant to this section shall not permit access to any information obtained from those records by another person, persons, agency, or organization, except for allowable exceptions contained within the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g) and state law, without the written consent of the pupil’s parent. This paragraph does not require prior parental consent when information obtained pursuant to this section is shared with other persons within the educational institution, agency, or organization obtaining access, so long as those persons have a legitimate educational interest in the information pursuant to Section 99.31(a)(1)(i)(A) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a school district, including a county office of education or county superintendent of schools, may participate in an interagency data information system that permits access to a computerized database system within and between governmental agencies or school districts as to information or records that are nonprivileged, and where release is authorized as to the requesting agency under state or federal law or regulation, if each of the following requirements are met:
(A) Each agency and school district shall develop security procedures or devices by which unauthorized personnel cannot access data contained in the system.
(B) Each agency and school district shall develop procedures or devices to secure privileged or confidential data from unauthorized disclosure.
(C) Each school district shall comply with the access log requirements of Section 49064.
(D) The right of access granted shall not include the right to add, delete, or alter data without the written permission of the agency holding the data.
(E) An agency or school district shall not make public or otherwise release information on an individual contained in the database if the information is protected from disclosure or release as to the requesting agency by state or federal law or regulation.
(b) The officials and authorities to whom pupil records are disclosed pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 48902 and subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall certify in writing to the disclosing school district that the information shall not be disclosed to another party, except as provided under the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g) and state law, without the prior written consent of the parent of the pupil or the person identified as the holder of the pupil’s educational rights.
(c) (1) Any person or party who is not permitted access to pupil records pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) may request access to pupil records as provided for in paragraph (2).
(2) A local educational agency or other person or party who has received pupil records, or information from pupil records, may release the records or information to a person or party identified in paragraph (1) without the consent of the pupil’s parent or guardian pursuant to Section 99.31(b) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, if the records or information are deidentified, which requires the removal of all personally identifiable information, provided that the disclosing local educational agency or other person or party has made a reasonable determination that a pupil’s identity is not personally identifiable, whether through single or multiple releases, and has taken into account other pertinent reasonably available information.

SEC. 2.

 Section 49076.5 of the Education Code is amended to read:

49076.5.
 (a) Notwithstanding Section 49076, each school district shall release the information it has specific to a particular pupil’s identity and location that relates to the transfer of that pupil’s records to another school district within this state or any other state or to a private school in this state to a designated peace officer, upon his or her request, when a proper police purpose exists for the use of that information. As permitted by Part 99 (commencing with Section 99.1) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the designated peace officer or law enforcement agency shall show the school district that the peace officer or law enforcement agency has obtained prior written consent from one parent, or provide information indicating that there is an emergency in which the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of the pupil or other individuals, or that the peace officer or law enforcement agency has obtained a lawfully issued subpoena or a court order.
(b) In order to protect the privacy interests of the pupil, a request to a school district for pupil record information pursuant to this section shall meet the following requirements:
(1) For purposes of this section, “proper police purpose” means that probable cause exists that the pupil has been kidnapped and that his or her abductor may have enrolled the pupil in a school and that the agency has begun an active investigation.
(2) Only designated peace officers and federal criminal investigators and federal law enforcement officers, as defined in Section 830.1 of the Penal Code, whose names have been submitted to the school district in writing by a law enforcement agency, may request and receive the information specified in subdivision (a). Each law enforcement agency shall ensure that each school district has at all times a current list of the names of designated peace officers authorized to request pupil record information.
(3) This section does not authorize designated peace officers to obtain any pupil record information other than that authorized by this section.
(4) The law enforcement agency requesting the information shall ensure that at no time shall information obtained pursuant to this section be disclosed or used for a purpose other than to assist in the investigation of suspected criminal conduct or kidnapping. A violation of this paragraph shall be punishable as a misdemeanor.
(5) The designated peace officer requesting information authorized for release by this section shall make a record on a form created and maintained by the law enforcement agency that shall include the name of the pupil about whom the inquiry was made, the consent of a parent having legal custody of the pupil or a legal guardian, the name of the officer making the inquiry, the date of the inquiry, the name of the school district, the school district employee to whom the request was made, and the information that was requested.
(6) Whenever the designated peace officer requesting information authorized for release by this section does so in person, by telephone, or by some means other than in writing, the officer shall provide the school district with a letter confirming the request for pupil record information before any release of information.
(7) A school district, or officer or employee of the school district, shall not be subject to criminal or civil liability for the release of pupil record information in good faith as authorized by this section.