Today's Law As Amended

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AB-491 Corporations: bylaws: emergency powers.(2013-2014)



SECTION 1.

 Section 207 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

207.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation shall have all of the powers of a natural person in carrying out its business activities, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to do business in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Subject to the provisions of Section 510, issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, hold, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own shares, bonds, debentures, and other securities.
(e) Make donations, regardless of specific corporate benefit, for the public welfare or for community fund, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, or similar purposes.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, profit-sharing, share bonus, share purchase, share option, savings, thrift and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of the directors, officers, and employees of the corporation or any of its subsidiary or affiliated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Subject to the provisions of Section 315, assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guaranty or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow and lend money, and otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property, franchises, and income.
(h) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind, whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(i) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 212:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 212:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 307.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the shareholders or is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the shareholders was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that an enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by a governor or by the President.

SEC. 2.

 Section 212 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

212.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation; or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum (which in no case shall be greater than two times the stated minimum minus one), with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the shareholders (Section 153) in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 204. The number or minimum number of directors shall not be less than three; provided, however, that (1) before shares are issued, the number may be one, (2) before shares are issued, the number may be two, (3) so long as the corporation has only one shareholder, the number may be one, (4) so long as the corporation has only one shareholder, the number may be two, and (5) so long as the corporation has only two shareholders, the number may be two. After the issuance of shares, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152); provided, however, that a bylaw or amendment of the articles reducing the fixed number or the minimum number of directors to a number less than five cannot be adopted if the votes cast against its adoption at a meeting or the shares not consenting in the case of action by written consent are equal to more than 162/3 percent of the outstanding shares entitled to vote.
(b) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles for the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (b), (c) or (d) of Section 204.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of shareholders’, directors’, and committee meetings.
(3) The manner of execution, revocation, and use of proxies.
(4) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their annual election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(5) The appointment and authority of committees of the board.
(6) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(7) The mode of determination of holders of record of its shares.
(8) The making of annual reports and financial statements to the shareholders.
(c) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the ordinary business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 207, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the shareholders or otherwise is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the shareholders was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 3.

 Section 5140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Issue memberships.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift and other retirement, incentive and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and admission fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts or liabilities by mortgage, pledge or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture or other association, transaction or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) Pay the reasonable value of services rendered in this state to the corporation before January 1, 1975, and not previously paid, by any person who performed such services on a full-time basis under the direction of a religious organization in connection with the religious tenets of the organization. Such person shall have relied solely on the religious organization for his or her financial support for a minimum of five years. A payment shall not be made if such person or religious organization waives the payment or receipt of compensation for such services in writing. Payment may be made to such religious organization to reimburse it for maintenance of any person who rendered such services and to assist it in providing future support and maintenance; however, payment shall not be made from any funds or assets acquired with funds donated by or traceable to gifts made to the corporation by any person, organization, or governmental agency other than the members, immediate families of members, and affiliated religious organizations of the religious organization under whose direction the services were performed.
(n) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 5211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that an enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by a governor or by the President.

SEC. 4.

 Section 5151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless that provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 5132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment and authority of committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admission fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, consistent with the requirements of Section 5341.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 5222, subdivision (c) of Section 5616, and Section 6610), the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members, or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the ordinary business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 5140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or otherwise is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 5.

 Section 7140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own memberships, bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(f) Issue certificates evidencing membership in accordance with the provisions of Section 7313 and issue identity cards.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and admission and transfer fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts or liabilities by mortgage, pledge or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 7151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 7151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 7211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that an enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by a governor or by the President.

SEC. 6.

 Section 7151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 7132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors, or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of any such committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admission and transfer fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, consistent with the requirements of Section 7341.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 7222, subdivision (c) of Section 7615, and Section 8610) the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the ordinary business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 7140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or otherwise is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 7.

 Section 9140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Issue memberships.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) Pay the reasonable value of services rendered in this state to the corporation before January 1, 1975, and not previously paid, by any person who performed such services on a full-time basis under the direction of a religious organization in connection with the religious tenets of the organization. Such person shall have relied solely on the religious organization for his or her financial support for a minimum of five years. A payment shall not be made if such person or religious organization waives the payment or receipt of compensation for such services in writing. Payment may be made to such religious organization to reimburse it for maintenance of any person who rendered such services and to assist it in providing future support and maintenance; however, payment shall not be made from any funds or assets acquired with funds donated by or traceable to gifts made to the corporation by any person, organization, or governmental agency other than the members, immediate families of members, and affiliated religious organizations of the religious organization under whose direction the services were performed.
(n) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 9151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 9151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 9211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that an enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by a governor or by the President.

SEC. 8.

 Section 9151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e) of Section 9151. The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Except as otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 9132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors, or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of any such committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admissions and transfer fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in Section 9222 and subdivision (b) of Section 9680), the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members, or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the ordinary business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 9140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or otherwise is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.